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Understanding Imperfection
Systems Science Faculty Publications and Presentations
  • Martin Zwick, Portland State University
Document Type
Publication Date
  • Systems theory,
  • Metaphysics,
  • Ontology,
  • Imperfection,
  • Insight,
  • Problem solving
Because of their inherent abstraction, systems ideas are not themselves sufficient for gaining scientific knowledge or solving practical problems, but they can be a source of insights into the universality of imperfection, insights which can contribute to a new scientific world view. Systems theory offers a metaphysics, or more precisely an ontology, of imperfection. Through it, we can heed Spinoza's injunction, “Not to lament, not to curse, but to understand.”

Plenary talk given to the World Congress of the Systems Sciences and 4th Annual Meeting of the International Society for the Systems Sciences, Toronto, July 16-22, 2000.

Persistent Identifier
Citation Information
Martin Zwick. "Understanding Imperfection" (2000)
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